Diwali is one of the most important festivals that is celebrated throughout India.
The date of his celebration varies from one year to the next, depending on the cycle of the moon and is set after the darkest night, the first night of the new moon in the Hindu calendar, known as the 15th day of Kartik, which marks the beginning of a new year. This day is either in October or November of each year and is the highlight of the holiday.
It's a festival of light.
Diwali or Deepavali in Sanskrit means "a row of lights".
The holiday has as its central element the triumph of good over evil, of purity over impurity, of light over darkness. It's a moment of introspection, of awareness. A time when we aim to overcome our own limits, recognize them and free ourselves from the dark parts of our being and allow our inner world to shine. It is a time of joy and renewal.
The festival is family-oriented. People meet in a warm, harmonious atmosphere. They prepare intensely for the festival, by cleaning and adorning the house, but also the soul. They seek to let go of feelings of hatred, anger, jealousy, to come to terms with everyone with whom they have conflicts or misunderstandings, they seek to be better and loving with everyone around them.
The feast of Diwali in India takes place when the monsoon season ends and the mild and pleasant weather begins, marking the end of tensions, conflicts and the beginning of peace, purity, love and prosperity.
Customs and symbolism
The pecific of this festival is the custom of lighting the small pottery lamps filled with oil, called diyas, which are placed in temples, in houses, on the streets and on the river course. They light up as a symbol of light, good, purity, but also as an offering to Lakshimi, the goddess of prosperity and luck. Lakshmi is the manifestation of happiness, material and spiritual prosperity, which is believed to first visit those who have clean and adorned houses, ready to receive it.
In addition to the candles, the atmosphere is illuminated by spectacular fireworks, to which are added the deafening petards, which have the role of warding off evil spirits.
All streets are decorated with colorful lights and garlands.
Lights and fireworks are symbols of light, good and righteousness, which have the power to remove darkness and ignorance.
Families, children, friends offer each other gifts and sweets. He pays off his old debts, buys new clothes and plays various board games.
In the different parts of India people relate to different symbols of the invigorator, models that overcome any obstacle, who successfully manage to overcome their limits, bring justice and good to light.
In northern India, Diwali is celebrated to honor Rama-chandra, the seventh avatar, the embodiment of Vishnu, along with Lakshimi, his counterpart, goddess of happiness, luck and prosperity.
It is said that on this day Rama returned to his people after 14 years of exile. During this time he fought and won a battle against the demons and the demon king, Ravana. His trimful is considered to be the trimful of light on darkness and hence the reason why people honor him on this day.
In the Region of Bengal, people celebrate Kali, the destroyer of evil forces. In Nepal people celebrate Krishna's victory over the evil king.
The significance of the five days of celebration
Similarly, the five days of the festival are celebrated differently in the various areas of India, but still there is a representative semification for each day valid throughout India.
The main celebrations take place on the third day of the festival, this year on November 14.
"Dhan" means wealth and "terrace"- the 13th day of the lunar cic in the Hindu calendar.
It is said that Dhanvantari, the Hindu god of medicine and the incarnation of Vishnu, brought to the people on this day Ayurveda and the nectar of immortality.
Legend also says that the Goddess Lakshmi was born on this day from the hustle and bustle of the ocean and is greeted with a puja, a special ritual in which an offering is made to the goddess, thereby hoping to follow her example more easily.
On this first day of the festival people prepare their homes for the celebration. They clean them, adorn them with garlands of flowers and light candles to invite Laskhmi to visit and bless them. Buy new clothes, bijiterii, sweets and gifts to give to your loved ones. People also gather to play cards or other games, as it is believed that it is auspicious and will bring wealth throughout the year.
"Naraka" means hell and "Chaturdashi" means the 14th day of a lunar week on the Hindu calendar.
The significance of this day is related to the defeat of the demon Narakasura by Kali and Krishna.
In 2020, Naraka Chaturdasi overlaps with Amavasya and falls on the same day, November 14.
This is the darkest day of the month, marking the central moment of the festival. Basically it is the moment when the day begins to grow, signifying the triumph of light over darkness, of good the harshness of evil.
On this day, in certain areas of India, puja is made to honor Lakshmi or Kali elsewhere.
In northern India it is celebrated as the day when Lord Krishna defeated Indra, the god of thunder and rain. In other areas, Vishnu's victory over the demon king Bali is celebrated.