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Today, most people still believe the famous theory of the Big Bang, according to which the universe emerged through an initial explosion, from an extreme condensate center, and since that universal explosion it continues to expand (until a moment when a contrary motion, of contraction, to the same type of supercondensed center, a state reached by a kind of gigantic implosion, will prevail).

This theory, so spectacular and somewhat subject to elementary logic, which thus explains the “flight of galaxies” and the redshift of spectra, nevertheless has enough gaps, appearing on closer analysis as a haphazard structure of scientific statements and conclusions, relatively forced.

French-born American physicist **Johan Masreliez** recently proposed a new, more coherent cosmological model of the expansion of the universe. To understand his assertions, let’s first dwell on some basic notions. First, what is commonly meant by “universe”? This term brings to mind an immense structure that contains everything that exists and is accessible to human experience, directly or indirectly. We can’t imagine anything outside of this “universe” because it contains everything. In a self-sufficient universe there would no longer be an absolute scale of evaluation, of measurement of material objects, because scale itself is a relative concept. If we reflect a little, we notice that any measurement is made by reference to a standard with which we compare the object to be measured. So how could we prefer one scale to another? Einstein’s general theory of relativity does not recognize the existence of any absolute scale for evaluating objects.

According to Einstein, the universal would look the same and behave the same if all objects, including elementary particles, were 2 times larger (or smaller!) in size than they really are, PROVIDED that the time rating scale changes simultaneously so that the duration of a second is double (or half) of the current value of a second. So, according to the theory of relativity, the size of material objects is a relative, rather irrelevant concept.

This scientific truth of relativity is correlated with the fact that the universal is “all that is,” and there is nothing “outside” of it that could determine the measure of things. This fundamental truth is not something new, it has been expressed both by metaphysicians and philosophers throughout the ages and by representatives of various religious systems. Eastern belief systems are based, moreover, on the idea that everything that exists and occurs in the universe takes place as a result of an equilibrium or imbalance, in any case a dynamic exchange between two complementary poles, Yin and Yang (according to the Taoist understanding). In the West, the idea that God created the world has dominated science and philosophy for millennia, so the existence of a relativistic universe is not agreed, for the belief system relates to an absolute scale of material objects and events, a scale of values established by God Himself.

**Space – expanding time**

In the absence of any absolute scale of things, we could infer that the shape and size of objects is “preset”. However, experiments and spectroscopic measurements have clearly shown the existence of an expanding universe, so we might think that if space expands, so must time. So, according to this inference, everything should be in an expansion process, even if it would be difficult to detect locally. However, light reaching earth from distant sources would be affected by universal expansion as it traveled the distance to Earth’s observer. As we know, this light would be redshifted. So, from what we actually observed, the model of an expanding universe agrees with the data we have about the cosmic world we live in.

We can use Einstein’s theory to predict how the expanding universe would appear to one of its inhabitants. Comparing the predictions of this theory with astronomical data, we can conclude that, in fact, even the rating scale of the universe is expanding! This new theory of expanding spacetime (SET) agrees better with the experimentally observed data than the Big Bang theory. SET even solves certain paradoxes of Einsteinian theory, as well as the mystery of the inertial frame of reference. For example, until now physicists have not provided a satisfactory explanation of the flow of time in the way we observe it. We also know that there is an inertial frame of reference because we observe the appearance of an inertia force, which opposes the acceleration of a body. But what creates this cosmological frame of reference remains a mystery.

**Space-time equivalence**

The universe whose scale is expanding is “spacetime equivalent”, i.e. all spatial references are equivalent to time references. This is also known as “form invariance”. The universe looks and behaves the same on a large scale, regardless of where in time and space we observe. The SET universe does not age. He always remains the same! It’s eternal! At first, this statement may seem bizarre, as we might think that sooner or later the universal might run out of energy. This would certainly be true in an expanding universe with a constant progression of time.

But in the SET universe, time slows down, and this has the effect of restoring energy lost through expansion! The equivalence of spacetime is even stronger than the “perfect cosmological principle”, for the universal is not supported by the spatial expansion and continuous creation of matter, as held in Stationary State theories. Spacetime equivalence assumes that all epochs are physically and geometrically identical; the linear element of General Relativity always remains the same. Time progresses without changing universally, on a large scale!

**Time acceleration – a new physical property**

What we call “energy” is closely related to the progression of time. It is obvious that without it there would be no movement, and without movement there would be no energy. Energy is ultimately movement, and this depends on the progression of time. If the pace of time progression slowed down, all moving objects would appear to be moving faster than each other, and their energy would appear to increase. So a slow progression of time would release energy throughout the universe! This source of energy would be eternal, because the pace of time can be slowed down however much, by a small fraction each year, for example. And the energy thus produced additionally would keep the universal in perpetual motion!

The famous age of the universe, estimated at 14 billion years, is actually the age of the universe measured at the current rate of time! It does not indicate the actual age of stars and galaxies. Time seems to have flowed faster in the past than it does today, meaning material objects and structures could be over 14 billion years old. The moment of “starting” the unfolding of time does not make sense in SET theory. Adding an infinite number of time intervals, each slightly shorter than the last, forms a finite-sum series.

Paradoxically, the age of the universe can be considered both finite and infinite, depending on how time is measured. If we start from the current rate of time, the age of the universe is finite, but apparently paradoxically, galaxies can, in principle, have an immeasurable age. This would solve one of the most difficult problems, because we know that certain stars in the Milky Way, and clumps or clusters of galaxies, are much older than the time since the Big Bang.

**SET expansion mode**

SET theory is based on a fundamental symmetry; Universal is “scale equivalent”, i.e. there is no a priori determined scale for the spacetime metric. Observers who inhabited different hypothetical universes of different sizes would find them identical in every way. This also means that the rhythm of atomic time (the time metric accepted today) is proportional to the spatial metric, regardless of scale.

However, the SET model is different in that different epochs are not correlated by continuous transformations of variables, and thus General Relativity (GRT) is not sufficient to model SET.

Since continuous variable transformations guarantee equivalence, and since all moments of time must be equivalent, it may seem disappointing that such a continuous transformation between time points is lacking. But it is precisely this feature that explains the progression of time! The failure of TRG to model exponential scale expansion, with all equivalent time points, has led some scientists, for example Weyl and Dirac, to modify general relativity so that it can include this aspect as well, using Weyl’s geometry. However, if we simply accept that it is impossible to use a continuous transformation of variables, and instead consider the possibility of using discrete transformations of variables that correspond to a discrete progression of time, we will find that all moments of time are equivalent, exactly as intended.

This cycle allows the universe to expand endlessly without altering its linear elements, i.e. geometry or spacetime physics. Of course, we can ask the question: why is there an expansion of the cosmological scale? The answer to this question is not yet known. However, if this expansion did not exist, the universal energy itself would no longer exist as such, and neither would we be able to ask this question now.

Johan Masreliez proved that the principles of quantum mechanics (QM) flow naturally from TRG, if metrics in Minkovsky space are oscillating. Thus, SET theory extends TRG from continuous manifolds to an expansion of the universal scale, due to an equivalence of scales.

A new perspective on the world

SET theory offers a completely new perspective on the world we live in, which may appear strange to us at first, because it is unfamiliar. However, it becomes very obvious and easy to accept once we get used to this point of view. Imagine how people felt the first time Nicolaus Copernicus said that the Earth was not a fixed planet, but in fact it was he who revolved around the Sun. SET theory states that the rhythm of time is not the same, but that it changes slightly with the expansion of space. Thus, the mystery of the creation of the universe is replaced by its eternal existence! Although we could say that an eternal universe is a strange presumption, it is no more unusual than the creation of everything from nothing, through the initial explosion, the Big Bang.

The SET theory is more consistent than the Big Bang theory with experimentally observed data, and its predictions can be tested directly, observing the motion of stars within a galaxy, or planets within a solar system, as well as from analyzing signals transmitted by space probes.

According to SET theory, the relative velocities, or rotations, of all free-moving objects will decrease with time, decreasing by a time constant equal to Hubble time—the age of the universe since the Big Bang. Thus, the SET theory predicts that the relative velocity of two free-moving objects will decrease by 50% in about 8 billion years.

In addition, objects evolving in rotation around a center of mass, for example planets evolving around the Sun, will move on spiral trajectories rather than circles or ellipses. These spiral trajectories could also explain the spiral shape of galaxies. The stars in galaxies are freely attracted to the center of the galaxy, and orient towards them in a spiral trajectory. Thus, the shape of spiral galaxies is easy to understand from the perspective of SET theory, but remains a mystery to standard physics. Simulations based on “orthodox” physics demonstrate that spiral arms cannot form, and that the galactic disk is much thicker than what we observe. The SET theory, however, demonstrates that stars fall freely toward the center of the galaxy, and gravity pushes them to clump together in spiral arms with narrow cross-sections.

According to SET, Earth is approaching the Sun at about 25 m per year. Cosmic entrainment causes Earth to accelerate its orbital motion by about 3 arcseconds (3:3600 of a degree) per century squared. This extremely small acceleration was detected, but was initially attributed to the slowing of Earth’s rotation, rather than to an accelerated motion of the Earth around the Sun.

Using modern technologies, it is quite easy to design tests that validate or invalidate the SET theory. But the effects to be observed are so small, and unnoticed in the past, that cosmic entrainment has not yet been accurately emphasized. Although some effects of this training were observed, they were considered rather anomalies with various causes. **Dr. Yurii Kolesnik** of the Russian Academy of Sciences recently reported some observations of the inner planets over the past 250 years. He analyzed these observations correlated with the modern extragalactic reference frame, and applied some correction factors accepted by current science. His results suggest a planetary acceleration, as predicted by the SET theory, agreement with which is excellent if we consider that Hubble time is about 14 billion years. These results were presented at the International Astronomy Symposium in 2000.

**SET’s connection to quantum mechanics**

A very interesting and totally unexpected implication of SET theory lies in the possible connection between cosmology and quantum theory, via Einstein’s GRT. The famous scientist vehemently criticized quantum mechanics, considering it fundamentally incomplete. The theory of quantum mechanics consists of a set of mathematical laws that can predict the outcome of interactions between atomic or subatomic particles.

This theory is like a magical black box that has only entrances and exits. Although the answers given by quantum mechanics are correct, it is not known exactly why they are so pertinent, because no one can model with the ordinary human mind the unstable and unpredictable (yet) quantum world.

To an observer belonging to the expanding universe, this discrete phased expansion will seem to cause the change in the flow of time, as it will produce very high-frequency vibrations at the level of the time variable. If we model these high frequencies based on the equations of gravity theory, we will see that the basic relationships in quantum theory flow directly from the equations of gravity theory! It turns out that quantum mechanics is the result of an oscillatory spacetime metric produced by cosmological expansion! This would explain why the strange quantum world actually exists as such. It is caused by the expansion of the cosmos.

The vibratory metric of spacetime influences the motion of particles and is the fundamental cause of quantum mechanics. Cosmological expansion infuses everywhere at all levels, supporting elementary particles and the effervescent space-time that manifests itself in the form of the quantum world.

**Conclusion**

SET theory provides coherent, pertinent explanations to many of the problems left unsolved to this day. This is based on the assertion that there is no absolute scale in the universe. The new theory describes a universe that emerges and behaves exactly like the observable cosmic world on Earth. The cosmic entrainment effect predicted by the theory is a new physical phenomenon, which can certainly be confirmed in the near future by direct observations of our solar system.

Scale expansion requires time to progress in small increments. This mode of expansion can lead to high-frequency oscillations of the spacetime metric which, if modeled according to General Relativity, comes to describe the quantum world! Thus, cosmological expansion is much more than an interesting feature of the universe. It is the very foundation of our observable world. It infuses everything and everything, objects and beings; It constitutes the progression of time and thus represents an eternal force!

An article by

physicist and psychologist Aida Şurubaru

AdAnima Academic Society Bucharest

www.adanima.org